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Offiziersskat is ein Kartenspiel für zwei Spieler. Es ist eine Variation von Skat an diese zwei Spieler angepasst.
Das Spiel wird mit einem Skatblatt von 32 Karten gespielt. Die Online Version implemtiert vereinfachte Regeln, z. Lieutnant Skat is a card game for two players.
It is a variation of the is played with a Skat card deck with 32 cards. To each number bid by R, the survivor must answer "yes" or "pass".
The winner of the second part of the auction becomes the declarer, and the bid is the last number the declarer said or accepted. If both M and R pass without having bid, then F can either be declarer at the lowest bid 18 , or can throw in the cards without play.
If the cards are thrown in there is no score for the hand, and the next dealer deals. To remember whose turn it is to start the bidding, German players sometimes say "geben, hören, sagen" deal, listen, speak , pointing in turn to dealer, forehand and middlehand.
If middlehand forgets to begin, forehand can start proceedings by saying "I'm forehand" or "I'm listening", or "Speak to me! If you win the bidding you are entitled to pick up the two skat cards, add them to your hand without showing them to the other players, and discard any two cards face down.
The cards discarded may include one or both of the cards picked up, and their value counts along with your tricks. Having discarded, you declare your game.
If you looked at the skat, your contract is a skat game. There are seven possibilities:. Diamonds , Hearts , Spades , Clubs in which the named suit is trumps and the declarer tries to take at least 61 card points ,.
Grand in which the jacks are the only trumps and the declarer tries to take at least 61 card points ,.
Null in which there are no trumps and the declarer tries to lose every trick ,. You may choose not to look at the skat cards, but to play with the 10 cards you were originally dealt.
If you don't look at the skat you are playing a hand game , and again there are seven possibilities: Diamonds Hand, Hearts Hand, Spades Hand, Clubs Hand, Grand Hand, Null Hand and Null Ouvert Hand.
In this case no one must look at the skat cards until after the play. If you are declarer in a Suit Hand or Grand Hand game, you can increase the value of the game by announcing Schneider undertaking to win at least 90 card points , or Schwarz undertaking to win all the tricks , or Open Ouvert undertaking to win all the tricks with your cards exposed.
Such announcements must be made before the lead to the first trick. These announcements are not allowed if declarer has looked at the skat.
Also obviously they do not apply in Null games. Play is clockwise. No matter who is the declarer, forehand always leads to the first trick.
Players must follow suit if they can. A player with no card of the suit led may play any card. Note that in Suit and Grand games the jacks belong to the trump suit, not to the suits marked on them.
For example if hearts are trumps, the jack of clubs is the highest heart , and has nothing whatever to do with the club suit.
A trick is won by the highest card of the suit led, unless it contains a trump, in which case the highest trump wins it. The winner of a trick leads to the next.
If you are declarer in a Suit or Grand game you win if the cards in your tricks plus the skat contain at least 61 card points.
The opponents win if their combined tricks contain at least 60 card points. If the declarer's opponents take 30 points or fewer in tricks, they are Schneider.
If they take 31 or more they are said to be out of Scheider. If they take no tricks at all, they are Schwarz. The same applies to the declarer - as declarer, you are Schneider if you win 30 card points or less including the skat, and Schwarz if you lose every trick.
Note that Schwarz depends on tricks not points - if a side wins just one trick and it has no card points in it, that is sufficient to get them out of Schwarz.
If you are declarer in Null or Null Ouvert , you win the game if you manage to lose every trick. If you take a trick, you have lost and the play of the hand ceases at that point.
If you are declarer in an Open Ouvert contract - i. Play then proceeds normally, and you play from your exposed hand. The opponents are not allowed to discuss tactics.
The value of a Suit or Grand contract is obtained by multiplying together two numbers: the base value and the multiplier. The base value depends on the trump suit as follows:.
Open contracts are extremely rare: you can only play open if you did not look at the skat and you also undertake to win every trick.
By implication, an open contract includes announcements of Schneider and Schwarz,so you count: matadors, game, Hand, Schneider, Schneider announced, Schwarz, Schwarz announced, and Open.
The jack of clubs and any top trumps in unbroken sequence with it are called matadors. If as declarer you have such a sequence in your original hand plus the skat, you are with that number of matadors.
If there is such a sequence in the opponents' combined hands, declarer is against that number of matadors.
Note that for the purposes of matadors, cards in the skat count as part of declarer's hand, even though in a Hand game declarer does not know what is in the skat when choosing the game.
The game multiplier is always counted, whether declarer wins or loses. The calculation of the value of a game sounds something like this: "with 2, game 3, Schneider 4, 4 times spades is 44".
The declarer must always be with or against at least one matador the jack of clubs must be somewhere , so the smallest possible multiplier is 2, and the smallest possible game value and the lowest possible bid is These are easy to score.
Each possible Null contract has a fixed value unaffected by multipliers. If the declarer loses, he deducts twice the number of game points he would have won.
Note that, as in Skat, game points are quite separate from card points; card points determine whether the declarer wins or loses, whereas game points determine how much is won or lost.
Many people calculate the points using additional matadors Spitzen as in Skat, so that in a game with all four Jacks and the Ace of trumps, the winner gets 5 matador points for a game value of 6 times the base value.
The same goes for the calculation of Unters or Jacks not held. If agreed, a game can also be played where players can 'pass' instead of choosing trumps.
If the actual declarer passes, the dealer can choose trumps once both players have four cards, face up, before them. If both players pass, the game is played as Ramsch , i.
The feature of Harlequin Skat is the fact that a player only sees half his own cards, but also half of his opponent's.
His opponent cannot see any of those cards, but can see all the others. The advantages of harlequin skat are that you need less space to play it, and a greater tactical depth because you know your opponent's cards before they are seen.
The same rules apply as in Officers' skat. However, the cards are not distributed on the table, but held in the hand as follows:.
The cards are placed in a pile in the middle. Players now take turns drawing one card at a time. The first card is picked up normally.
The second card is not viewed, but placed behind the other, so that it is only visible by the opponent. The third card is then picked up 'normally' again, the fourth is placed facing away behind the third, and so on.
Players may say: "One to see, one to turn! The players pick up their first eight cards, of which they will hold four face up, normally; and the remaining four turned to face away and so only seen by their opponent.
The starting player now calls trumps. Then the remaining cards are drawn in the same fashion, so that now both players see eight of their own cards and eight of their opponent's.
When a card is played, the card facing the opponent may then be turned over. Often this does not become obvious before the player picks up the Skat , or even not before the end of the game in question in case of a hand game, when the Skat is not picked up.
Players have therefore to exercise careful scrutiny during bidding, as not to incur an unnecessary loss. The bidding may also give away some information about what cards a player may or may not hold.
Experienced players will be able to use this to their advantage. The game value also called hand value , German : Spielwert is what the game will be worth after all tricks have been played.
It is determined not only by the 10 cards held, but also by the two-card Skat. The Skat always belongs to the declarer, and if it contains certain high cards this may change the game value.
It is therefore not possible in general to determine the exact game value before knowing the Skat. The game value is determined by the type of the game and the game level as explained below for the suit, grand and null games.
In a suit game German : Farbspiel , one of the four suits is the trump suit. Each suit has a base value German : Grundwert , as follows:.
This base value is then multiplied by the multiplier game level German : Spielstufe or Gewinngrad to determine the game value, so:.
The multiplier game level of 1 for becoming declarer is always assumed. It is then increased by one for each of the following:.
In case of a Hand game declarer does not pick up the Skat , the following special cases are allowed.
Each one increases the multiplier game level by another point:. Cards in the trump suit are ordered as follows this is important to know when counting the length of the matador's jack straight :.
The non-trump suit cards are ranked AK-Q or AK-O for the German pack respectively. As mentioned above, the cards in the Skat are to be included when determining the multiplier game level also in case of the Hand game, where the Skat is unknown until after the deal has been played out.
During bidding, each player therefore has incomplete information regarding the true game value. The final game value is calculated by multiplying the base value for the suit by the multiplier game level:.
Grand game is a special case of suit game, in which only the Jacks are trumps in the same order as in the suit game:. The base value for the grand game is 24 in the official rules.
It used to be 20 until , and many hobbyists continued to use 20 well into the postwar era. All other rules for determining game value are as in a suit game, that is, the base value of 24 is multiplied by the multiplier game level.
In the null game, declarer promises not to take any tricks at all. There is no trump suit, 10s are sorted directly above 9s, and jacks are treated as normal suit cards sorted between 10 and queen.
Thus the cards are ordered: A-K-Q-J The game values of null games are fixed, as follows:. The following examples give a player's holding and the contents of the Skat which will be unknown to all players during the bidding and explain how to derive the game value.
The multiplier game level will be 2 1 for matador's jack straight plus 1 for becoming declarer. Note that game value is dependent not only on the cards held including the Skat but also on which game is being declared and the outcome of the play.
Each holding can thus be evaluated differently by different players. A risk-taking player might be willing to declare Hand on a holding on which another player might not — these two players will therefore give different valuations to the same holding.
However, after all tricks have been played, it is always possible to determine the exact game value by combining the actual holding with the type of game and outcome of the play.
Only then it becomes apparent if declarer has won or lost if he overbid. Assuming a trump suit of hearts in a suit game, this holding will have a different valuation before and after the Skat has been examined.
With Hearts as trump, the game value will always be at least that much. Now, assuming declarer wins by taking 95 points in tricks, after having declared Hand and Schneider , the actual game value will be as follows:.
The player could have bid up to that value during the bidding. Now for the special cases: if you think you can do more than just win, you can add points for the special cases.
The highest possible multiplier game level is that is with or without four jacks and all seven cards of trump suit including those in the Skat , if any 11, plus the maximum of 7 for becoming declarer, Hand , Schneider , declaring Schneider , Schwarz , declaring Schwarz and Ouvert.
The order of bidding is determined by the seating order. Starting from the left of the dealer players are numbered clockwise: the first seat German : Vorhand , the second seat German : Mittelhand and the third seat German : Hinterhand.
In a three-player game, the dealer will be the third seat. In a four-player game the third seat will be to the right of the dealer. Bidding starts by the player in second seat making a call to the player in first seat on which the latter can hold or pass.
If the first seat player holds, the second seat player can make a higher call or pass himself. This continues until either of the two players passes.
The player in third seat is then allowed to continue making calls to the player who has not yet passed. Bidding ends as soon as at least two players have passed.
It is also possible for all three players to pass. The player who continues in this mnemonic is either the dealer in a three-player game or the player in third seat.
The mnemonic is commonly used among casual players. Example: Anna, Bernard and Clara are playing, and seated in that order around the table.
Anna deals the cards. Clara makes the first call to Bernard, who passes right away. Anna then makes two more calls to Clara, who accepts both bids. Anna then passes as well.
The bidding ends, with Clara being the declarer for this round. Except for "pass", only the possible game values are legal calls. Therefore, the lowest possible call is 18, which is the lowest possible game value in Skat.